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Living With Radiation
living with radiation the first hundred years paul frame and william m kolb
The straightest path to peace of mind and living confidently is to seek truth and cultivate one’s knowledge and understanding, reading just so happens to be a fundamental component of learning and memory. Accordingly we have chosen to include this easy to read book in our list of products in an effort to enhance the availability of printed information regarding radiation to share how it is a part of all our lives.

Over the last 100 years radioactive substances have been used extensively in a number of applications and consumer products. Especially in the early part of the 20th century, and to a lesser extent today, a number of commonly available products have been radioactive. These include:

•  luminous watch dials (radium and tritium)
•  orange ceramicware (notably Fiestaware from the 40s and 50s; uranium oxide)
•  smoke detectors (americium 241; in current use)
•  gas camping lantern mantles (thorium; some manufacturers no longer use this)
•  camera lenses (thorium)
•  static eliminators for film and records (polonium 210)
•  welding rods and arc lamps (thorium)
•  vacuum tubes (thorium was used to increase electron emission)

A fascinating look at the proliferation of uses of radioactive materials in the last century can be found in the book “Living with Radiation: The First Hundred Years” by Paul Frame and William Kolb. It tells the story of the use of radioactive materials in consumer and commercial products in the century since radioactivity was discovered.

Second edition; copyright William M. Kolb and Paul Frame, 2000;
256 pages, numerous photographs.

 Table of Contents:
The Early Years
Military, Commercial and Consumer Products
1. Naturally Occurring Radioactivity
1.1 Radiation in the Natural Environment
1.1.1 Rocks and Minerals Mineral Collections and Commemorative Items Gemstones and Costume Jewelry Fossil Fuels Construction Materials Kaolin Cat Litter
1.1.2 Water Mineral Springs and Health Spas Wells Radon Removal Systems
1.1.3 Air Health Mines Natural Gas Radon Detectors Air Filters, Ionizers, and Electrostatic Precipitators
1.1.4 Cosmic Radiation Air Travel Space Travel Thunderstorms
1.2 Radiation in Food, Tobacco, and Health Care Products
1.2.1 Food and Food Additives Brazil Nuts Low Sodium Salt and Potassium Compounds
1.2.2 Phosphates and Fertilizers
1.2.3 Tobacco
1.2.4 Health Care Products
2. Radioactivity Essential to Product Function
2.1 Quackery and Questionable Medical Products
2.1.1 Mild Radium Therapy
2.1.2 Non-Radioactive Health Products
2.2 Radioluminescent Products
2.2.1 Instruments, Gauges, Markers, etc.
2.2.2 Radioluminescent Watches and Clocks
2.2.3 Spinthariscopes
2.2.4 Glow-in-the-Dark Toys
2.3 Ion Producing Devices
2.3.1 Lightning Rods
2.3.2 Electron Tubes
2.3.3 Irradiated Spark Gaps
2.3.4 Density, Moisture and Thickness Gauges
2.3.5 Gas Chromatographs
2.3.6 Smoke and Aerosol Detectors
2.3.7 Tobacco Denaturizers
2.3.8 Air Deodorizers
2.3.9 Chemical Detectors
2.3.10 Static Eliminators
2.4 Nuclear Powered Devices
2.4.1 Nuclear Batteries
2.4.2 Pacemakers
2.5 X-ray Fluorescence Analyzers
2.6 Radioactivity from Other Sources
2.6.1 Check Sources
2.6.2 Sand Consolidation
2.6.3 Safety Controls
2.6.4 Science, Chemistry, and Mineral Sets
2.6.5 Advertisements, Souvenirs and Mementos
2.6.6 Nuclear Medicine
3. Radiation Electronically Generated by Product
3.1 X-rays from Vacuum Tubes and Spark Coils
3.2 Medical X-rays
3.3 Hair Removal
3.4 Shoe-Fitting Fluoroscopes
3.5 Personnel Scanning Systems
3.6 Airport Inspection Systems
3.7 Television Receivers
3.8 Monitors and Video Display Terminals
3.9 Night-Vision Equipment
4. Radioactivity Incidental to Product Function
4.1 Uranium
4.1.1 Uranium Metal Containers and Shielding Weights and Counterweights Frizzens and Flints Depleted Uranium Munitions Public Relations
4.1.2 Uranium Compounds Photographic Prints, Slides and Negatives Advertisements
4.1.3 Uranium in Glass Glassware Neon Signs and Geissler Tubes Uranium Glass Filters
4.2 Thorium
4.2.1 Thorium Metal Thorium Alloys Welding Rods Arc Lamps and Electric Lights
4.2.2 Thorium Compounds Gas Lantern Mantles Thorotrast Neutron Dosimeters Optical Coatings
4.2.3 Thorium in Optical Glass
4.3 Uranium and Thorium in Ceramics
4.3.1 Glazes
4.3.2 Glass Enamel
4.3.3 Porcelain Dentures
4.3.4 Ceramics
4.3.5 Crucibles
4.3.6 Insulation
4.3.7 Abrasives
4.3.8 Piezoelectric Ceramics
4.4 Rare Earths
4.4.1 Rare Earth Glass Optical Glass Eyeglasses Television Faceplates Automotive Window Glass
4.4.2 Rare Earth Magnets
4.4.3 Other Rare Earth Products
5. Radioactive Contamination in Product
5.1 Gems
5.2 Jewelry
5.3 Steel
5.4 Static Eliminators
6. Radiation Used to Manufacture Product
6.1 Food, Cosmetics and Medical Supplies
6.2 Precious and Semi-Precious Gemstones
6.3 Atomic Marbles
6.4 Golf Balls
6.5 Lichtenberg Figures
The Next 100 Years
End Notes
Photo Credits and Details
Appendix A: Radioactive Electron Tubes
Appendix B: Radioactive Military Items
Appendix C: Uranium Glazes
Appendix D: Potteries
Appendix E: Science Sets
Appendix F: Photographic Processes
Appendix G: Radioactive Minerals
Appendix H: Glands and Radium
Appendix I: Radiation Detection and Measurement
Appendix J: Activity of Radioactive Elements
Appendix K: Biological Effects of Radiation
Appendix L: State Radiation Control Program Directors
Appendix M: Regulations on Owning and Shipping Radioactive Materials
Appendix N: Online Resources
Appendix O: Radiation Units and Conversions
Appendix P: Radioactive Antique Price Guide

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